2019 WAEC GCE GOVERNMENT ANSWERS
SECTION A(answer 2 questions only from this section)
(i)The right to Private Property; the ability to own private property. The owner of the property has the sole right to do what he wishes with it.
(ii)Profit Motive; This is the core of capitalism. In fact the economy starts and ends with this motive.
(iii)Mechanism of Price This is the hidden hand of the market operating in competitive conditions. It allocates scarce resources among competing users by rationing price when demand outstrips supply.
(i)Focus on profit: The obsessive focus on profits leads to social and economic inequality. The population that controls the means of production tends to accumulate more wealth than the workers who helped to create those riches for the wealthy.
(ii)Financial instability: Financial markets go through periods of irrational exuberance, causing boom and bust cycles. During a long recession, people can lose their jobs, have their houses foreclosed and suffer a decline in their living standards.
(iii)Monopoly power: Because capitalism is a free market, it is possible for a single firm to become all-powerful and dominate a market.
(iv)Workforce limitations: In theory, the factors of production should be able to move from an unprofitable use to a profitable business
(i) One-party system and two-party:- A system where only two parties have the possibility of winning an election is called two-party system. A system where only three parties have a realistic possibility of winning an election or forming a coalition is sometimes called a “Third-party system”. But, in some cases the system is called a “Stalled Third-Party System,” when there are three parties and all three parties win a large number of votes, but only two have a chance of winning an election. Usually this is because the electoral system penalizes the third party, e.g. as in Canadian or UK politics. In the 2010 elections, the Liberal Democrats gained 23% of the total vote but won less than 10% of the seats due to the first-past-the-post electoral system.
(ii) Developing a party strategy:- The first step in coalition-building involves developing a party strategy that will lay the ground for successful negotiation. The more effort parties place on this step, the more likely they are to identify strategic partners,negotiate a good deal and avoid some of the common pitfalls associated with coalition-building.
(iii) Polarized pluralism:- is a two-party or multi-party political system which is seen as overly polarized and therefore as dysfunctional. It was originally described by political philosopher Giovanni Sartori to define a system where moderate views are replaced by polarized views. The phrase was used by analyst Roger Cohen writing in the New York Times to describe American politics about energy, but the phrase is not widely used in mainstream newspapers.
(iv) A political organization:- Is any organization that involves itself in the
political process, including political parties, non-governmental
organizations , advocacy groups and special interest groups. Political organizations are those engaged in political activities (e.g., lobbying ,
community organizing , campaign advertising , etc. aimed at achieving clearly-defined political goals, which typically benefit the interests of their members.
(v) Outgroup derogation:- Discrimination between ingroups and outgroups is a matter of favoritism towards an ingroup and the absence of equivalent favoritism towards an outgroup.
(i) Shortage of trained personnel:Acute shortage of trained and experienced personnel affect the efficiency of local governments.
(ii) Political interference: Political leaders have a different times interfered with the activities of local government.
(iii) Diversion of public fund: Some officials is involved in revenue collection embezzled part of the fund for their own selfish ends.
(iv) Acute shortage of fund: Most local governments do not have enough funds to operate.
(v) Bribery and corruption: Some officials demand and even take bribe before performing their normal functions
(i)To make laws for the state ; the body that is in charge of it is known as the LEGISLATURE.
(ii)To implement the laws; the organ that responsible is the EXECUTIVE.
(iii)To interpret the laws and punish the lawbreakers; the arm of government responsible is the JUDICIARY.
(i) Allows no person or no
branch of government to have absolute
(ii) It is a concept meant to keep each branch of government in check.
(iii) The fundamental challenge that it addresses is it
prevents the onset of tyranny, by limiting power
centered in an individual or in an institution.
(iv) It forces a dialogue and consensus on issues, which allows inclusiveness and prevents unintended consequences that might arise due to decisions/actions of any one individual or branch
SECTION B(Answer 2 questions only from this section)
(i) Promoting Unity:- It has aims of promoting unity and solidarity among African states.
(ii) Living condition:- to ensure good living standard for the people.
(iii) Common defence:- member states agreed that they should jointly cooperatively defend their territories against external aggression.
(iv) Eradication of colonialism:- They agreed to work toward the eradication of all forms of colonialism and imperialism on the continent.
(v) Promotion of international peace:- Member states agreed to work together with other organizations eg U.N.O to promote international peace.
(i) The president of a country according to 1989 constitution of federal republic of Nigeria must ensure the independence of judiciary.
(ii) President must ensure that fundamental human right is achieved.
(iii) The president should ensure that the citizenship of the country is well defined.
(iv) The president of a country according to 1989 constitution should ensure separation of power.
(v) Nomination of chairman of electoral commisssion.